Carbon dating four gospels
Carbon dating four gospels - hard dating sim
(Note: The term "canon tables" refers to the system of dividing and comparing the contents of the four Gospels, which was used between late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
There were several gospels in circulation at the time in addition to the four in the Bible.Reputedly, Abba Garima lived in the monastery, healing the sick and performing miracles, for more than 20 years.Garima 1 consists of 348 pages, beginning with 11 illuminated pages, including canon tables set in arcades, followed by the Gospel texts written in Ge'ez, the Ethiopic language of the Kingdom of Axum, which is the language of the Ethiopian Church.When those gospels were denounced, it was thought that believers hid them away.The gospel of Judas was kept by a group called the Gnostics, who believed that the way to salvation was through secret knowledge given by Jesus to his inner circle.(Ge'ez script is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world.) Also written in Ge'ez, but by a different scribe, Garima 2 has 322-pages, including 17 illuminated pages, of which four are portraits of the Evangelists.
The miniature painting which decorates both gospels is reminiscent of Byzantine Art, although this too is now thought to have been created in Ethiopia. Significantly, the texts of the two Garima manuscripts are quite different; thus Garima 1, for instance, does not derive directly from Garima 2.
Garima 2, the older of the two books, is therefore the earliest known Christian decorated text in the history of illuminated manuscripts, as well as being one of the oldest versions of the early Byzantine Text of the Gospels.
According to tradition, the gospel books were written and illustrated by Saint Abba Garima, who is reputed to have arrived in Ethiopia from Syria, in 494.
Examined in 1950 by the British art historian Beatrice Playne, and in the 1960s by the French scholar Jules Leroy.
Leroy dated the Gospels to about 1100, while another expert - Donald M Davies - dated them to about 700-900.
The Dutch theological historian Rochus Zuurmond preferred the later date of 1000-1200, albeit with some contra-indications.